Finding Quality Acupuncture in Brentwood, TN

Finding Quality Acupuncture in Brentwood, TN

There are many reasons a person might seek out Acupuncture in Brentwood, TN for their first time. Stress, chronic pain, or simply a desire to relax can pique someone’s interest. Entering the world of acupuncture is exciting, but can also be a little confusing at first.

How do you find a reputable acupuncturist? What do you look for in a facility?

These questions can leave a person with what feels like a lot to learn. However, finding a quality acupuncturist is easier than it might seem.

Here’s what you should look for when researching acupuncturists:

  1. Find an Approach That Aligns With Your Goals

  2. Experience

  3. Variety of Treatments

  4. Clean Facilities

  5. Full-Service Approach

  6. Stays Up-To-Date On Emerging Trends

  7. Accessible Location

1. Find an Approach That Aligns With Your Goals

Take a moment to figure out what it is you are looking to gain from an acupuncture treatment. Are you looking to treat a specific condition? Are you trying to find a new way to relax?

There are different forms of acupuncture that aim to treat different conditions. Traditional Chinese acupuncture is the oldest and most widely-practiced of the available approaches. It aims to treat the body as a whole. And it is through this understanding that it is able to address a wide variety of issues.

Look into local acupuncture facilities to find one that addresses your needs.

2. Experience

Everyone learns at their own pace. And there’s definitely nothing wrong with people trying to break into the acupuncture industry. These new faces on the scene have a lot to offer. But first-timers (as well as those experienced with acupuncture) have a lot to gain from finding a local acupuncturist with a significant amount of experience.

For instance, those in the area of Brentwood, TN have the option of visiting William Alexander. William has been a licensed acupuncturist since 2003.

This experience can not be substituted. A lot of knowledge can be gleaned from this many years of performing acupuncture sessions for a variety of people.

Visit Affinity Acupuncture in Brentwood, TN today!

3. Variety of Treatments

Speaking of variety, an assortment of available treatments is also very beneficial. You will be able to comfortably return to a facility once an initial rapport is established. Visiting multiple offices throughout the area can get tiresome. Wouldn’t it be better if you could make one stop for all your needs?

Affinity Acupuncture in Brentwood, TN offers not only various forms of acupuncture including Mei Zen cosmetic acupuncture, but also nutritional counseling.

The availability of multiple treatments reinforces the idea that the acupuncturist has your best interests at heart. Utilize a facility that has the ability to care for you in more ways than one.

4. Clean Facilities

The condition of the facility has a huge impact on your overall experience. These facilities need to be kept in immaculate condition. Frequent cleanings are essential.

But beyond that, the general appearance will also impact your level of enjoyment and the efficacy of the treatments.

Consult reviews from locals, look at pictures on the website, or visit the office itself to see how they take care of the place. Any indication that they allow their facility to fall into disrepair can be a sign that they aren’t as thorough as they need to be in other matters.

5. Full-Service Approach

This goes along with the idea of an acupuncturist offering a variety of treatments. The programs offered should address various aspects of the body and mind. These systems work together to create our daily experiences and need to be taken into account as a whole.

The most effective way to treat a patient is to address the whole picture. This includes diet, mental state, as well as physical conditions.

Visit the website of a potential acupuncturist and make sure they take a holistic approach to treatment. You can also contact them directly with any questions.

6. Stays Up-To-Date On Emerging Trends

Just because traditional Chinese acupuncture is thousands of years old doesn’t mean your acupuncturist shouldn’t pay attention to contemporary trends. New information is always being released and consulting these resources makes for the best acupuncture treatment.

Affinity Acupuncture in Brentwood makes a point of keeping apprised of all advancements and emerging methods of treatment. This insistence on continuing education is what makes the facility a local leader in the industry.

7. Accessible Location

One of the most basic considerations is that you need to find an acupuncturist that is easily accessible. You don’t want to drive across the state for an appointment. Look into your local options for potential acupuncture facilities and research the above attributes.

Those in Brentwood, TN don’t need to look any further than Affinity Acupuncture. William’s experience and continued focus on expanding knowledge make us the best option in middle Tennessee.

Contact Affinity Acupuncture today!

Find Acupuncture in Nashville

Find Acupuncture in Nashville

Have you been curious about the benefits of acupuncture but haven’t had the opportunity to give it a try? Or, have you been looking for that perfect acupuncturist in Nashville to address specific issues?

There are many reasons to seek the services of a qualified acupuncturist. The list of benefits is long, the process is relaxing, and our Berry Hill location is easily accessible for our Nashville patients.

But what exactly do you stand to gain from visiting Affinity Acupuncture?


Acupuncture is done in a quiet room. You will be asked to lie on a table as the acupuncturist addresses your specific needs. This is performed through manipulation of the body’s natural acupressure points. This process releases endorphins as well as opens up the body’s natural pathways.

Acupuncture leaves the patient in a state of relaxation. Many people find the experience akin to meditation and leave the office in a state of calm. Visiting an acupuncturist can provide a number of benefits but the most immediately apparent will be the way you feel during and after a session.

Visit Affinity Acupuncture in Berry Hill for your Nashville acupuncture needs!

Pain Relief

Acupuncture has been used as a means of pain management for a very long time. In fact, acupuncture has been practiced for over 3,500 years. The staying power has as much to do with positive aspects as tradition.

Acupuncture is used to treat numerous types of chronic pain. This includes back pain, abdominal pain, facial pain, and a variety of others. Affinity Acupuncture will work with you in Nashville to address your personal issues in the most effective means possible.

Nutritional Guidance

The foods we eat have a massive effect on how we feel. Quite literally, everything you eat is used to create your body tissues and to power your body’s functions. The foods we eat have been used to combat illness for thousands of years.

Affinity Acupuncture will work with you to figure out your nutrition goals. A plan will then be put in place for a realistic path toward achieving these goals. Follow up visits will track progress and adjust any methods or recommendations as needed to account for new challenges and changing goals.

Women’s Health

There are a number of aspects related to the health of a woman that require special attention. Different phases of life bring changes and considerations that need to be made to preserve the comfort and well-being of a woman.

Menopause is frequently viewed with apprehension and fear. However, it doesn’t need to be as bad as some people might say. Mood swings, headaches, night sweats, hot flashes — these symptoms can be managed and mitigated. Attention to diet, acupuncture, and traditional Chinese medicine can be used to address these issues. In fact, only 10% of Chinese women experience these issues that commonly plague women in the west. Use of these methods quite likely plays a role in this.

Wrinkle Reduction

People are constantly in search of the next method of avoiding the effects of aging. One frequently used means of reducing the signs of aging is to reduce the appearance of wrinkles. Botox is commonly used with this in mind. However, many people don’t like the idea of injecting their face with a toxin. Affinity Acupuncture offers a much more natural means of addressing wrinkles.

Mei Zen Cosmetic Acupuncture is used as an alternative to Botox. Our patients see positive changes over the course of a five-week treatment plan. It can lead to the reduction (and sometimes the disappearance) of fine lines. Smoother cheeks, softer skin, and faded age spots are all possible benefits of Mei Zen Cosmetic Acupuncture.

Traditional Chinese Medicine

The oldest medical textbook in the world is over 4,700 years old: the Huang Di Nei Jing or Yellow Emperor’s Classic of Internal Medicine. Chinese medicine incorporates the various fields of acupuncture, herbal medicine, cupping, exercise, nutrition, and lifestyle counseling. These focuses are rooted in the Taoist philosophy of change, growth, and harmony.

Affinity Acupuncture will meet with you to discuss your goals through traditional Chinese medicine. What are you looking to gain? What would you like to address? This conversation will inform the techniques used to restore your health.

Gastrointestinal Relief

Gastrointestinal disorders can be incredibly uncomfortable. Constipation, diarrhea, spastic colitis, gas — these symptoms can have a consistent negative impact on our lives. Acupuncture and Chinese medicine have been shown to provide relief from GI discomfort.

The World Health Organization has proven through controlled clinical trials acupuncture to be an effective treatment for various gastrointestinal issues. Affinity Acupuncture can work with you to find treatments for your GI problems.

Contact Affinity Acupuncture to set up an appointment in Nashville today!

Acupuncture Soothes Cervical Spinal Nerves, Reduces Pain

Researchers find acupuncture effective for the relief of cervical spinal syndrome. This condition involves irritation of the spinal nerves located in the neck. Spinal nerves transmit sensory, motor, and autonomic nervous system signals between the spinal cord and the body. Inflammation and impingement present in cervical spinal syndrome results in head, neck, chest, shoulder, or arm pain and dysfunction. The results of the research demonstrates that acupuncture plus moxibustion yields a high total recovery rate. In addition, nearly every patient receiving acupuncture plus moxibustion demonstrated significant improvements.

Researchers from the Hubei Hongan Traditional Chinese Medicine Hospital examined 200 cervical syndrome patients in a controlled investigation. The research team discovered that targeted acupuncture treatments produce an extremely high total effective rate and a high complete recovery rate. Targeting involved the application of a primary acupuncture point prescription for all patients plus an additional set of secondary acupuncture points based upon diagnostic variations in clinical presentations. Using this semi-protocolized targeted approach to patient care, the research team achieved a 97% total effective rate across all tiers of improvement. The breakdown into levels of efficaciousness produced surprising results. The total recovery rate was 64%, the significant improvement rate was 17%, the minimal improvement rate was 16%, and 3% had no improvement. 

Dr. Ruth Jackson, MD, notes, “The nerve roots leave the spinal cord at an angle which approximates a right angle, and they fill fairly snugly the foramina through which they pass. This makes them very vulnerable to irritation from any mechanical derangement of the cervical spine.” Cervical syndrome is often triggered by a small event, such as leaning over a sink while brushing teeth or turning the head. However, the initial cause may have been prior, including whiplash injuries, mechanical deformities, or other chronic irritations. The tight spacing of the intervertebral foramina (IVF) through which the nerves pass is easily encroached by both chronic and acute conditions that produce inflammation and morphological changes.

A primary set of acupoints was administered to all patients in this acupuncture continuing education study. A total of 3 – 4 acupoints from the primary set were applied during each acupuncture session. Each acupoint, including customized secondary acupoints, were needled with standard manual acupuncture protocols for insertion and manipulation. Total needle retention time during each acupuncture session was 20 minutes. One acupuncture session was applied daily for a total of 10 days, followed by a two day break and then another 10 days of acupuncture therapy. For moxibustion, a moxa cigar was used to warm the cervical Jiaji acupoints for 30 minutes per day. One 30 minute moxibustion treatment was conducted daily for 10 consecutive days. The next treatment cycle of an additional 10 days of moxibustion care commenced after a 2 day break from treatment. The primary acupoints were selected from the following selection:

Fengchi (GB20)
Dazhui (GV14)
Jianjing (GB21)
Tianzong (SI11)
Lieque (LU7)
Zhongzhu (TB3)
Houxi (SI3)
Ashi (located beside spinous processes)
Secondary acupoints were selected based on the type of cervical syndrome presentation for each patient. For nerve root compression cervical syndrome affecting the shoulders and arms, the following points were applied:

Jianyu (LI15)
Tianzong (SI11)
Binao (LI14)
Yanglao (SI6)
For vertebral artery related cervical syndrome, the following acupoints were applied:

Taiyang (MHN9)
Touwei (ST8)
Baihui (GV20)
Sishencong (MHN1)
Neiguan (PC6)
Sanyinjiao (SP6)
Taichong (LV3)
Zusanli (ST36)
For sympathicus cervical syndrome involving excess stimulation of the sympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system, the following acupoints were applied:

Taiyang (MHN9)
Jingming (BL1)
Qiuhou (MHN8)
Yifeng (TB17)
Neiguan (PC6)
Zusanli (ST36)
Sanyinjiao (SP6)
Jiaoxin (KD8)
Yinjiao (CV7)
Patients were evaluated before and after the treatment course of care. The treatment efficacy for each patient was categorized into 1 of 4 tiers:

Recovery: Complete recovery of neck function. Complete absence of clinical symptoms.
Significantly effective: Alleviation of localized pain. Clinical symptoms largely absent.
Effective: Localized pain present. Basic physiological function achieved. Main clinical symptoms absent.
Not effective: No improvement.
The total treatment effective rate was derived as the percentage of patients who achieved at least an effective tier. The data shows that acupuncture combined with moxibustion benefits nearly every cervical syndrome patient to some degree, with a 97% total effective rate across all tiers of improvement. The 64% complete recovery rate is equally important.

The researchers gave a Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) background to the treatment of cervical syndrome, often manifesting as cervical spondylosis. According to TCM, cervical syndrome is common starting in middle-aged individuals and older. Often, cervical nerve impingement is due to osteoarthritis and cervical disc protrusions or extrusions. Radiculitis is common in all cases. According to TCM principles, left untreated, cervical syndrome is a degenerative disorder. Calcification of related ligaments due to chronic strain and inflammation may lead to oppression of the cervical vertebrae, nerve roots, and blood vessels. There may also be pressure onto the spinal cord in more serious cases. These conditions lead to cervical dysfunction and pain.

In TCM, cervical syndrome is often categorized in the class of Bi Zheng. External pernicious influences giving rise to cervical syndrome include external injury, exhaustion, wind, cold, and dampness. Zang-Fu and deficiency related conditions include deficiency of the liver and kidneys or tendon and bone malnutrition. The aforementioned conditions result in poor qi and blood circulation in the Taiyang meridians and imbalances of the Ying and Wei. Symptoms such as severe neck pain, shoulder pain, numbness, headache, dizziness, and nausea ensue as a result of the condition. The results of the research demonstrates that acupuncture combined with moxibustion is effective for the relief of cervical syndrome.

Li HX & Zhao L. (2013). Efficacy observation on treating 200 cases of cervical syndrome with acupuncture and moxibustion. Clinical Journal of Chinese Medicine. 5(3).

Jackson, Ruth. “The Classic: The Cervical Syndrome.” Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research. 468, no. 7 (2010): 1739-1745.


Report Finds Acupuncture Reverses Lower Back Pain

Report Finds Acupuncture Reverses Lower Back Pain

Qi-guiding acupuncture relieves disc herniation pain and a special intensive silver acupuncture needle protocol relieves chronic lower back myofascial pain.

Researchers find acupuncture effective for the treatment of lower back pain disorders. In a protocolized study from the Shanghai Jiaotong University Sixth People’s Hospital, researchers determined that a special type of manual acupuncture therapy, known as qi-guiding acupuncture, produces significant positive patient outcomes for lumbar intervertebral disc herniation patients. In related research from Xinping Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine, investigators find acupuncture combined with moxibustion effective for the alleviation of lower back pain due to lumbodorsal myofascial pain syndrome. A special application of silver acupuncture needles produced superior patient outcomes. Let’s start with a look at the Shanghai Jiaotang University research and then we’ll see how the silver needle protocol boosts treatment efficacy for the treatment of lower back pain.

Acupuncture is effective for the treatment of lumbar intervertebral disc herniations. Wu et al. (Shanghai Jiaotong University Sixth People’s Hospital) investigated the treatment results of qi-guiding acupuncture with meridian differentiated acupoint selections and determined that it produces significant positive treatment outcomes for lumbar intervertebral disc herniation patients. Wu et al. also find electroacupuncture with meridian differentiated acupoint selections effective; however, qi-guiding acupuncture had a slightly higher rate of producing positive patient outcomes. Qi-guiding acupuncture had an 87.5% total treatment effective rate and electroacupuncture achieved an 86.6% total treatment effective rate. Qi-guiding acupuncture also had better outcomes for increases in nerve conduction velocity. The results are definitive given the large sample size of 549 patients with lumbar disc herniations evaluated in this study. 

Lumbar disc herniation patients experience lower back pain and radiculopathy (radiating pain and numbness) as a result of anulus fibrosis damage, IVF encroachment, and other issues associated with disc damage (Hu et al.). Acupuncture, as one of the most common non-surgical treatment methods for lumbar disc herniation, has a high treatment effective rate and no significant adverse effects (Cheng).

Qi-guiding acupuncture was first documented in ancient literature, including The Systematic Classic of Acupuncture & Moxibustion by Huang-fu Mi. In qi-guiding acupuncture, needle entry and removal is controlled and slow. To direct qi upward, the acupuncture needle is oriented upward; similarly, to direct qi downward, the needle is pointed downward. Subsequently, the needle is frequently rotated, lifted, and thrust to regulate the flow of qi in the body. Additional manipulation techniques may be intermittently applied. In modern use, qi-guiding acupuncture repairs ultramicroscopic structures of damaged nerve roots and accelerates other aspects of nerve repair, thereby increasing nerve conduction.

In this study, lumbar disc herniation patients receiving qi-guiding acupuncture achieved an 87.5% total treatment effective rate. Patients receiving electroacupuncture achieved an 86.6% total treatment effective rate. Both qi-guiding acupuncture and electroacupuncture significantly increased nerve conduction velocity. Qi-guiding acupuncture had a slightly greater improvement in common peroneal nerve conduction velocity and superficial fibular nerve conduction velocity. Common peroneal nerve conduction velocity increased from 38.26 ± 12.8 to 44.75 ± 5.24 after the application of qi-guiding acupuncture, and increased from 39.11 ± 3.64 to 39.86 ± 10.95 after electroacupuncture. Superficial fibular nerve conduction velocity increased from 41.63 ± 4.37 to 42.55 ± 6.43 after the application of qi-guiding acupuncture, and increased from 40.71 ± 9.56 to 40.43 ± 4.01 after electroacupuncture.

A total of 549 patients with lumbar disc herniations were treated and evaluated in this study. These patients were diagnosed with lumbar disc herniations between December 2012 and March 2014. They were randomly divided into a treatment group and a control group, with 280 patients in the treatment group and 269 patients in the control group. The treatment group underwent qi-guiding acupuncture therapy, while the control group received electroacupuncture. Acupoint selection for both groups was based on meridian differentiation. Identical acupoints were selected for both patient groups.

For Taiyang meridian lumbago and leg pain (scelalgia):

Shenshu (BL23) Dachangshu (BL25) Zhibian (BL54) Huantiao (GB30) Juliao (GB29) Yinmen (BL37) Weizhong (BL40) Chengshan (BL57) Kunlun (BL60) For Yangming meridian lumbago and leg pain:

Shenshu (BL23) Dachangshu (BL25) Qichong (ST30) Biguan (ST31) Futu (ST32) Tiaokou (ST38) Zusanli (ST36) For Shaoyang meridian lumbago and leg pain:

Shenshu (BL23) Dachangshu (BL25) Huantiao (GB30) Fengshi (GB31) Yanglingquan (GB34) For qi-guiding acupuncture, the following protocol was administered. Upon disinfection with 75% ethanol, a 0.30 mm x 40 mm filiform acupuncture needle was inserted into each selected acupoint. Huantiao and Juliao were needle to a depth of 2.5 inches. The remaining acupoints were needled to a depth of 1.2 inches. When a deqi sensation was achieved for all acupoints, qi-guiding needling with the Xie (reducing) manipulation technique was applied to Weizhong, Tiaokou, and Yanglingquan to transmit the needling sensation upward and toward the hip or waist. The same technique was applied to Huantiao, Juliao, and Biguan, instead transmitting the needle sensation downward and toward the legs. Subsequently, qi-guiding needling with the Bu (tonification) manipulation technique was applied on Dachangshu to transmit the needle sensation toward the lumbosacral area. The same technique was used on Shenshu until a deqi sensation of soreness or swelling was perceived at the lumbar region. A needle retention time of 20 minutes was observed during which the needles were rotated, lifted, and thrusted every 5 minutes to facilitate the flow of qi. One qi-guiding acupuncture session was conducted every other day for a total of 10 treatments.

Electroacupuncture for the control group was administered with the same aforementioned protocol. Before needle retention, the needles were connected to an electroacupuncture device. The device was then set to a continuous wave at 4 Hz with a 2mA current. A 20 minute needle retention time was subsequently observed. One electroacupuncture session was conducted every other day for a total of 10 treatments. The clinical results the Wu et al. study demonstrate that both qi-guiding acupuncture and electroacupuncture, when combined with meridian-differentiated acupoint selection, are suitable and effective therapies for lumbar disc herniation patients. However, qi-guiding acupuncture produces slightly better treatment outcomes in terms of nerve conduction velocity improvements.

In a related study, Wang H.D. (Xinping Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine) finds acupuncture combined with moxibustion therapy effective for the treatment of lumbodorsal myofascial pain syndrome. The study also finds that a silver needle protocol produces preferable treatment outcomes to conventional acupuncture. Lumbodorsal myofascial pain syndrome causes chronic lumbago and commonly occurs in young adults. Intensive acupuncture combined with moxibustion using silver needles was famously used by Professor Xuan Zhe Ren, a renowned Chinese orthopedist.

Acupoints were selected based on the degree of soft tissue damage, area of muscular tissue involved, and size of tendon contracture. In this approach, acupoints are 2 cm apart from each other and are mainly located on the lumbosacral region. Results from Wang’s study demonstrate that lumbodorsal myofascial pain syndrome patients receiving intensive acupuncture combined with moxibustion using silver needles achieved a 90% total treatment effective rate. Conventional acupuncture with moxibustion achieved an 83.3% total treatment effective rate.

Wang’s study involved a total of 60 patients with lumbodorsal myofascial pain syndrome. They were divided into a treatment group and a control group, with 30 patients in each group. The treatment group underwent intensive acupuncture-moxibustion therapy with silver needles. The control group received conventional acupuncture-moxibustion.

Intensive acupuncture-moxibustion with silver needles was applied to the T12 – L4 Jiaji acupoints and the acupoints located at the midpoint between each Jiaji acupoint. In addition, acupoints located 2 cm lateral to the Jiaji acupoints were needled. Finally, moxibustion applied with one Zhuang of 3 cm moxa cigar. One session was conducted daily for a total of 7 days. For conventional acupuncture-moxibustion therapy, the following primary acupoints were selected:

Shenshu (BL23) Mingmen (GV4) Weizhong (BL40) Ashi Additional acupoints were selected based on individual symptoms. For lumbago with chill-dampness:

Yaoyangguan (GV3) For lumbago due to exhaustion:

Yanglingquan (GB34) Sanyinjiao (SP6) For lumbago with kidney deficiency:

Zhishi (BL52) Taixi (KD3) A needle retention time of 30 minutes was observed. Subsequently, moxibustion was applied using either a 4 hole or 6 hole moxa box on the lumbar acupoints. One session was conducted daily for a total of 7 days. The treatment efficacy for each patient was evaluated and categorized into 1 of 3 tiers:

Recovery: Complete elimination of symptoms. Physical movement regained completely. No pain points. Significantly effective: Elimination of symptoms. Physical movement regained. Discomfort reoccurs only under exhaustion or change in weather. No pain or numbness. Effective: Symptoms relieved. Pain or numbness present. Not effective: No improvement in symptoms. The total treatment effective rate for each patient group was derived as the percentage of patients who achieved at least an effective tier of improvement. The intensive acupuncture-moxibustion with silver needles protocol outperformed conventional acupuncture. However, both approaches produced significant positive patient outcomes.

Both aforementioned studies indicate that acupuncture is effective for the alleviation of lower back pain. These studies highlight the differences in therapeutic effects between various forms of acupuncture. As a result, qi-guiding acupuncture and intensive acupuncture-moxibustion with silver needles are found clinically effective for the relief of lower back pain.


References: Wu YC, Sun YJ, Zhang JF, Li Y, Zhang YY & Wang CM. (2014). Clinical Study of Qi-guiding Acupuncture at Points Selected According to Meridian Differentiation for Treatment of Lumbar Intervertebral Disc Herniation. Shanghai Journal of Acupuncture and Moxibustion. 33(12).

Cheng XN. (1987). The study of Chinese acupuncture-moxibustion. Volume 1, Beijing: People’s medical publishing house. 192-284.

Hu YG. (1995). Prolapse of lumbar intervertebral disc. Volume 2, Beijing: People’s medical publishing house. 226-228.

Zhu WM, Wu YC, Zhang JF, et al. (2010). Tuina combined with acupoint injection in treating prolapse of lumbar intervertebral disc. Chinese Journal of Sports Medicine. 29(6): 708-709.

Wang HD. (2013). Clinical Observation on Intensive Acupuncture-moxibustion with Silver Needles for Lumbodorsal Myofascial Pain Syndrome. Shanghai J Acu-mox. 32(8).




Report Finds Acupuncture Reverses Lower Back Pain

Acupuncture Relieves Menstrual Pain More Than Traditional Drugs

How Alternative Medicine Like Acupuncture Alleviates Menstrual Pain

Researchers find acupuncture combined with moxibustion more effective for the treatment of painful menstruation than ibuprofen. Across three independent studies, researchers made several important findings. Acupuncture plus moxibustion produces superior treatment outcomes to oral intake of ibuprofen. Acupuncture plus moxibustion is superior to using only acupuncture as a standalone therapy. Acupuncture improves blood circulation and hemorheological characteristics for patients with dysmenorrhea (painful menstruation). Let’s take a look at the results.

Hubei University of Medicine researchers (Jiao et al.) conducted a controlled clinical trial and confirm that the combination protocol of acupuncture plus moxibustion produces superior outcomes to using ibuprofen capsules to control menstruation cramping and pain. Jiao et al. conclude that acupuncture plus moxibustion has a 96.8% total treatment effective rate for the treatment of dysmenorrhea. Ibuprofen sustained time release capsules achieved a 58.1% total treatment effective rate. Acupuncture plus moxibustion outperformed ibuprofen by 38.7%. This is consistent with the independent research of Zhao et al. finding acupuncture effective for improving blood hemorheological characteristics, regulating blood viscosity, and enhancing the microcirculation of blood in the uterus for patients with dysmenorrhea. 

Jiao et al. had a sample size of 62 human female patients and conducted a clinical trial at the Acupuncture Division of Hubei University of Medicine. Patients were randomly divided into an acupuncture group and a medication group, with 31 patients in each group. The acupuncture group received a combination of acupuncture and moxibustion therapy and the medication group received ibuprofen sustained time release capsules. The primary acupoints selected for all patients were the following:

Guanyuan (CV4)
Zhongji (CV3)
Sanyinjiao (SP6)
Additional acupoints were selected on an individual symptomatic basis. Acupoints selection was based on the Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) system of differential diagnosis by pattern differentiation. For qi and blood stasis, the following acupoints were added:

Taichong (LV3)
Xuehai (SP10)
For depressed liver qi with dampness and heat, the following acupoints were added:

Xingjian (LV2)
Yinlingquan (SP9)
For liver and kidney deficiency, the following acupoints were added:

Shenshu (BL23)
Mingmen (GV4)
For poor qi and blood circulation, the following acupoints were added:

Qihai (CV6)
Zusanli (ST36)
Treatment commenced with patients in a supine position. After disinfection of the acupoint sites, a 0.30 mm x 40 mm disposable filiform needle was inserted into each acupoint with a high needle entry speed. Manual acupuncture stimulation techniques for obtaining deqi including lifting, thrusting, and rotating. Once a deqi sensation was obtained, the needles were retained and moxibustion was conducted on the same acupoints.

Moxa cigar cuttings, each 2 cm long, were attached to each needle handle and ignited. Moxa was left in place to self-extinguish. One acupuncture session was conducted daily for 3 – 4 consecutive days during menstruation. Treatment was also conducted on the 2 days prior to the next menstrual cycle. The entire course of treatment comprised 3 menstrual cycles. Patients were also advised to avoid getting chilled and to keep warm during activities of daily living.

For the ibuprofen group, patients received 300 mg of ibuprofen sustained time release capsules starting 1 – 2 days prior to menstruation. Capsules were orally administered twice per day for 2 – 3 days until the symptoms were mitigated, for a total of 3 menstrual cycles. Vitamin B was administered additionally for patients who also experienced stomach discomfort. The results tabulated, the acupuncture plus moxibustion protocol provided greater pain relief than the ibuprofen protocol.

In an independent research trial, Lu Ying (Xianning Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine) investigated the treatment efficacy of triple acupuncture and mild moxibustion for primary dysmenorrhea patients. Lu Ying determined that triple acupuncture with mild moxibustion yielded better treatment results than conventional acupuncture. For primary dysmenorrhea, triple acupuncture plus mild moxibustion therapy achieved a 96.7% total treatment effective rate. Conventional acupuncture achieved a 90% total treatment effective rate.

A total of 60 patients were treated and evaluated in the study. They were randomly divided into a treatment group and a control group, with 30 patients in each group. The treatment group underwent triple acupuncture with mild moxibustion therapy while the control group received conventional acupuncture therapy. The primary acupoints selected for the treatment group were the following:

Zhongji (CV3)
Sanyinjiao (SP6)
Diji (SP8)
Shiqizhuixia (M-BW-35)
Additional acupoints were selected based on individual symptoms. For poor blood and qi circulation, the following acupoints were added:

Xuehai (SP10)
Pishu (BL20)
Zusanli (ST36)
For poor blood and qi circulation with blood stasis, the following acupoints were added:

Hegu (LI4)
Taichong (LV3)
Ciliao (BL32)
For chills and dampness, the following acupoint received moxibustion but needling was not applied:

Shuidao (ST28)
For dampness and heat in liver, the following acupoint was needled bilaterally:

Yanglingquan (GB34)
Patients were instructed to urinate prior to treatment and subsequently rested in a supine position. Upon disinfection of the acupoint sites, a 0.30 mm x 50 mm filiform acupuncture needle was inserted into the acupoints. For Zhongji, the needle was inserted toward Qugu (CV2) with a high entry speed at an entry angle of 45°, to a depth of 5 mm, and until the needle stimulated a deqi response at the midpoint of the upper edge of the pubic bone.

Subsequently, two acupoints located 3 mm laterally to Zhongji were swiftly pierced to a depth of 5 mm and were then inserted to become parallel to the needle at Zhongji. The same deqi response was stimulated at these points, as was in the case of Zhongji. This is the triple acupuncture technique applied to Zhongji.

The remaining acupoints were pierced perpendicularly until a deqi sensation was achieved. The deqi sensation was defined as the patient feeling soreness, numbness, swelling, or aching towards the bottom part of the perineum or a slight electrical sensation. A needle retention time of 30 minutes was observed. During needle retention, the needles were each manipulated every 10 minutes with manual acupuncture techniques. Additionally, during needle retention, mild moxibustion was conducted at Zhongji, until the skin was flushed and moxibustion heat was transmitted downward into the skin.

For the control group, selected acupoints were identical to those of the treatment group. Primary and additional acupoints were perpendicularly pierced with a 0.30 mm x 50 mm filiform acupuncture needle. Needle manipulation techniques varied based on individual body conditions. The triple acupuncture threading technique was not applied, only perpendicular insertion was used. For poor blood and qi circulation, blood clotting, or chills and dampness, the Xie (attenuating) manipulation technique was applied. For poor liver health, heat, and dampness, the Ping Bu Ping Xie (attenuating and tonifying) manipulation technique was applied. For poor blood and qi circulation, the Bu (tonifying) manipulation technique was applied. A needle retention time of 30 minutes was observed. During needle retention, the needles were each manipulated every 10 minutes.

Both groups of patients received their respective treatments 5 days prior to menstruation. For one treatment cycle, treatment was conducted once daily for 5 consecutive days. Treatment was ceased during menstruation. The entire treatment course comprised 4 menstrual cycles. In addition, patients were advised to maintain a positive emotional state and avoid exhaustion and becoming chilled. The clinical results demonstrate that triple acupuncture and mild moxibustion produce greater therapeutic effects than conventional acupuncture in the treatment of primary dysmenorrhea.

The average rate of dysmenorrhea in China is approximately 30% – 40%. During puberty, the rate is approximately 50%. Among all cases of dysmenorrhea, 10% – 20% are severe. The researchers provide a brief synopsis of the Traditional Chinese Medicine understanding of primary dysmenorrhea. In Traditional Chinese Medicine, primary dysmenorrhea falls under the Jing Xing Fu Tong class of disorders. TCM classifies primary dysmenorrhea into two major types based on the overall TCM pathology: deficiency and excess. Deficient primary dysmenorrhea is caused by weak qi and blood circulation, deficiency of the liver and kidneys, or qi and blood deficiency. Excess-type primary dysmenorrhea is exacerbated by emotional pressures, depressed liver qi, blood stasis, or poor qi circulation. Consuming cold drinks during menstruation also contributes to excess-type primary dysmenorrhea.

The researchers also provide some insight into TCM principles relative to the treatment of primary dysmenorrhea. Regulating the Chong and Ren meridians improves blood and qi circulation to produce healthy, well regulated, and trouble-free menstruation. The Guanyuan acupoint significantly restores yuan (source) qi, improves blood and qi circulation, eliminates blood stasis, and relieves pain for patients with dysmenorrhea. Administering moxibustion at Guanyuan warms the meridians, expels chills, and regulates the Chong and Ren meridians. Guanyuan, Qihai, and Zhongji are acupoints which benefit yang and regulate the Chong and Ren meridians. Sanyinjiao is a central acupoint for the maintenance of liver, spleen, and kidney health and is therefore beneficial to patients with dysmenorrhea.


Jiao FL, Liang YC & He M. (2014). Therapeutic Observation of Acupuncture-moxibustion for Primary Dysmenorrhea. Shanghai Journal of Acupuncture and Moxibustion. 33(5).

Lu Y. (2014). Therapeutic Observation of Triple Acupuncture at Zhongji (CV 3) plus Mild Moxibustion for Primary Dysmenorrhea. Shanghai Journal of Acupuncture and Moxibustion. 33(7).

Zhao NX, Guo RL, Ren QY et al. (2007). Acupuncture therapy in treating primary dysmenorrhea, treatment efficacy and hemorheology study. Zhejiang University of TCM Journal. 31(3): 364-365, 367



Sleep Apnea Relief: Acupuncture more effective than CPAP

Researchers (Zheng-tao, et al.) find acupuncture effective for the treatment of obstructive sleep apnea and conclude that it is a potentially valid and successful substitute for the CPAP machine. The findings indicate that acupuncture is a proven treatment option for sleep apnea patients looking for a cost-effective alternative to standard treatment or for those who find sleeping with the machine difficult to manage.

Sleep apnea, often associated with snoring, is the condition where the airway is restricted during sleep, usually due to either an anatomical abnormality or a reduced function of the dilator muscle in the upper airway. This means that the person affected with sleep apnea will have inclement episodes throughout the night where they stop breathing in their sleep several times in the night, reducing the oxygen levels in their bodies. This is a growing health concern as it results in a decrease in quality of life and overall health.

Sleep apnea leads to sleepiness, irritability, depression, reduced concentration and memory, erectile dysfunction, and even cardiac and metabolic conditions. Sleep apnea can affect adults and children alike, but it tends to be more common in men and people with preexisting medical conditions like obesity, thyroid conditions, nasal obstruction, and alcohol consumption. Due to the effects of sleep apnea, this condition can become a real economic burden; therefore, it is important to both diagnose and treat it immediately.
While there are other methods available, the standard treatment for sleep apnea typically involves a machine called nCPAP, nasal continuous airway pressure, which involves a mask or tube on the mouth and/or nose and provides continuous oxygen. When used properly, the nCPAP is effective at managing the apnea and shallow breathing, known as hypopnea, thereby eliminating the lack of oxygen in the bloodstream caused by sleep apnea. By controlling the oxygen levels, the symptoms of sleep apnea, like fatigue and cardiovascular disease, are mitigated and the patient resumes a better quality of life.

In patients with severe obstructive sleep apnea caused by anatomical abnormalities or in cases where the nCPAP fails or is inadequate, a dental appliance may be recommended. Surgery may also be recommended in cases where the anatomical abnormality is obvious, such as large palatine or lingual tonsils. However, standard treatment with the nCPAP has been a proven method to reduce upper airway restrictions and, therefore, improves quality of life. Despite this effectiveness, it is not a permanent solution to ending obstructive sleep apnea.

The researchers sifted through research articles across several languages using a combination of medical search terms like “sleep apnea, obstructive,” “upper airway resistance sleep apnea syndrome,” and “acupuncture therapy.” For the Chinese database they used search terms “zhen” and “shuimian” or “ditongqi.” The reports included in this mega study had to have participants diagnosed with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), but there were no restrictions on age, sex, or race. Patients with sleep apnea in the experimental groups received both manual acupuncture  and electroacupuncture while the control groups received either no treatment or nCPAP treatment. Patients that received sham acupuncture, which is essentially a placebo effect where patients believe they are receiving acupuncture but in fact are not being inserted with needles or the needles are being placed on non-acupuncture points, were included in the control group. There was no differentiation of the types of needle materials or the acupoints chosen. The researchers only included studies that were randomized controlled trials, and threw out anything that involved animal experiments, case reports, reviews, or duplicates

All of this yielded about 216 potential studies, which were narrowed down to 6 studies that met all of the rigorous inclusion requirements set by the researchers. Two studies were conducted in Brazil and the other four by Chinese investigators within a single center. Between 2007 and 2015 there was a total of 362 participants enrolled in the various trials (197 patients in the acupuncture group and 165 in the control group, with ages ranging from 35–76). Outcomes of the study were based on reported Apnea-Hypopnea Index (AHI), apnea index, hypopnea index, and mean Sa02 levels, which is the percentage of oxygen saturation in the blood. What they discovered was amazing. The researchers discovered that acupuncture was more effective in the improvement of all AHI, apnea index, hypopnea index, and SaO2 levels than nonspecific treatment and that electroacupuncture was even more effective at treating AHI. What is even more astounding is that acupuncture in these studies proved to be more effective than even nCPAP at improving AHI, and had no side effects.

The goal of treating obstructive sleep apnea is to reduce both sleep disruption and AHI levels to improve overall health and quality of life. While the nCPAP is very effective at treating obstructive sleep apnea, compliance among patients is difficult due to the cumbersome mask placed on their face, and it can be an expensive appliance to obtain. In the studies included in this analysis, acupuncture consistently improved all measures used to assess the effectiveness of treatment. The researchers deliberately chose to use AHI, apnea index, hypopnea index, and SaO2 levels to judge the effectiveness of treatment because it reduced the risk of bias and all these data could be directly recorded overnight during polysomnography (PSG), which is the standard testing used to diagnose obstructive sleep apnea. Both manual acupuncture and electroacupuncture were included in the study, as each differ to some extent in the mechanism of action. For example, electroacupuncture causes the release of beta-endorphin and adrenocorticotrophic hormones into blood plasma, where manual acupuncture releases only beta-endorphins.

All of the studies used in this meta-analysis combined manual acupuncture and electroacupuncture protocols. Varying frequency settings using electroacupuncture devices were applied in differing treatment protocols. While the meta-analysis demonstrates that acupuncture is effective at treating sleep apnea, no conclusions can be drawn as to which type of acupuncture protocol is the most effective.

Lv Zheng-tao, Jian W, Huang J, Zhang J, and Chen A. The Clinical Effect of Acupuncture in the Treatment of Obstructive Sleep Apnea: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine. 2016.